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Internet Editor’s Note: Drs. Fonagy and Allison recently published an article titled “The role of mentalizing and epistemic trust in the therapeutic relationship” in Psychotherapy.

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Over the past decades, meta-analyses have found almost no clinically meaningful differences in efficacy between the various evidence-based psychotherapies. This has led to the formulation of the so-called “Dodo bird verdict”, based on the Alice in Wonderland story, which argues that “all [psychotherapies] have won and all must have prizes”.

Consequently, major figures in the field have questioned the notion that theory-specific techniques or interventions, such as addressing dysfunctional cognitions in cognitive-behavioral therapy, or the relationship between past and present in psychodynamic therapy, are mainly responsible for therapeutic outcome. They argue that, instead, factors that are common to effective treatments – providing the patient with hope and with a comprehensive theory that explains the patient’s complaints – would typically explain a greater proportion of the therapeutic outcome. This would be particularly the case if the therapist is able to establish a warm and empathic therapeutic relationship with the patient. Hence, the “Dodo bird” still looms unresolved over the field of psychotherapy.

We have recently proposed a new, evolutionarily informed approach to the “Dodo bird” controversy that also has important implications for understanding psychopathology more generally.

Mentalizing and Attachment: Evolutionary Advantages

Our starting point is contemporary evolutionary theories concerning social cognition. Evolutionary theory suggests that as the human mind needed to respond to ever more challenging, complex, and competitive conditions, norms for social behavior and understanding could not be “fixed” by genetics or constitution. These norms had to be optimized through a prolonged period of development within a close circle of people – people who we would term attachment figures. Attachment figures not only provided young children with the basis for feelings of security and exploration (Bowlby, 1973; Main, Kaplan, & Cassidy, 1985), but also provided a training ground for the ability to mentalize – the capacity to understand ourselves and others in terms of intentional mental states (Fonagy & Luyten, in press).

Mentalizing provided an evolutionary advantage because it allowed these early humans to adapt better to their physical environment, by facilitating social collaboration and well-functioning kinship groups, but also by supporting competition for survival when different social groups were at odds. Hence, mentalizing is a key element of our species’ uniquely developed level of social cognition.

The link between attachment and mentalizing is clear. Attachment contexts provide the ideal conditions for fostering mentalizing. Secure attachment relationships, where attachment figures are interested in the child’s mind and the child is safe to explore the mind of the attachment figure (Fonagy, Lorenzini, Campbell, & Luyten, 2014), allow the infant to explore other subjectivities, including that of his/her caregiver. Finding him/herself accurately represented in the mind of the caregiver as a thinking and feeling intentional being ensures that the infant’s own capacities for mentalizing will develop well (Fonagy, Gergely, Jurist, & Target, 2002).

Epistemic Trust and the Transmission of Culture

Recent elaborations of thinking on mentalizing have taken the argument one step further to point to another important function of attachment relationships. This is the development of epistemic trust, that is, trust in the authenticity and personal relevance of interpersonally transmitted knowledge. Epistemic trust enables social learning in an ever-changing social and cultural context and allows individuals to benefit from their (social) environment (Fonagy & Allison, 2014; Fonagy, Luyten, & Allison, 2014; Fonagy and Luyten, in press).

Gergely and Csibra’s theory of natural pedagogy (Csibra & Gergely, 2009) helps to clarify the key issues here. Human beings are faced with a major learnability problem: they are born into a world that is populated with objects, attributes, and customs whose function or use is epistemically opaque (that is, not obvious from their appearance). Humans are thus evolved to both teach and learn new and relevant cultural information rapidly.

Human communication is specifically adapted to allow the transmission of epistemically opaque information: the communication of such knowledge is enabled by an epistemically trusting relationship. Epistemic trust allows the recipient of the information being conveyed to relax their natural, epistemic vigilance – a vigilance that is self-protective and naturally occurring because, after all, it is not in our interest to believe everything indiscriminately. The relaxation of epistemic vigilance allows us to accept that what we are being told matters to us.

These views do not diminish the importance of attachment, but put theories concerning the role of attachment in a very different perspective. Recent research suggests that the long-term relationship between attachment in infancy and attachment status in adolescence and into adulthood is complex. It seems likely that there is a fluctuating relationship between attachment, genes, and the social environment across the life course (Ellis et al., 2011; Fearon et al., 2014).

In terms of psychopathology, we suggest that the most significant implication of the developmental triad of attachment, mentalization, and epistemic trust lies in the consequences of a breakdown in epistemic trust. What we are suggesting here is that many, if not all, types of psychopathology might be characterized by temporary or permanent disruption of epistemic trust and the social learning process it enables.

An infant whose channels for learning about the social world have been disrupted – in other words, whose social experiences with caregivers have caused a breakdown in epistemic trust – is left in a quandary of uncertainty and permanent epistemic vigilance. Everybody seeks social knowledge, but when such reassurance and input is sought, the content of this communication may be rejected, its meaning confused, or it may be misinterpreted as having hostile intent.

In that sense, many forms of mental disorder might be considered manifestations of failings in social communication arising from epistemic mistrust, hypervigilance, or outright epistemic freezing, a complete inability to trust others as a source of knowledge about the world, which may be characteristic of many individuals with marked trauma and personality problems. An individual who was traumatized in childhood, for instance, has little reason to trust others and will reject information that is inconsistent with their pre-existing beliefs. As therapists, we may consider such people “hard to reach”, yet they are simply showing an adaptation to a social environment where information from attachment figures was likely to be misleading.

The “P Factor”: Epistemic Mistrust as a Common Factor in Psychopathology?

A serious challenge for our thinking about psychopathology arises from the fact that when we consider many individuals’ psychiatric history over their life course, it rarely follows the discrete, symptom-defined, and diagnosis-led categories that extant cross-sectional research uses when conceptualizing specific disorders.

This lack of specificity may relate to compelling evidence presented by Caspi et al. (2013) suggesting that there is, in fact, a “general psychopathology factor” in the structure of psychiatric disorders. Caspi and colleagues’ findings suggest that a hierarchical three-level structure explains the relationships among psychiatric disorders:

  • A general psychopathology factor (labelled the “p factor” as a conceptual parallel to the “g factor”, the well-established dimension by which general intelligence is understood);
  • Clusters of symptoms (internalizing, externalizing, and psychosis); and
  • Individual disorders, for example, schizophrenia, generalized anxiety disorder, and depression.

A higher p factor score is associated with increased severity of impairment, more developmental adversity, and greater biological risk. The p factor concept convincingly explains why, so far, it has proved so difficult to identify isolated causes, consequences, or biomarkers and to develop specific, tailored treatments for individual psychiatric disorders.

The p factor is thus far a statistical construct. We propose that the p factor may be a proxy for impairments in epistemic trust: An individual with a high p factor score is one who, because of developmental adversity (whether biological or social), is in a state of epistemic hypervigilance and epistemic mistrust. If this is true, it may have major consequences for psychosocial interventions. It would mean, for instance, that people with relatively low p factor scores might be most responsive to psychosocial interventions.

A depressed patient with a low p factor score may, for instance, recover with the help of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy, perhaps even when delivered via an e-platform. These patients may be relatively “easy to reach” in terms of treatment because they are open to social learning in the form of therapeutic intervention. In contrast, a depressed patient with a high p factor score, who is suffering from high levels of comorbidity, longer-term difficulties, and greater impairment, is likely to show intense treatment resistance because of their high levels of epistemic mistrust, or outright epistemic freezing. We consider it likely that such patients will require more long-term therapy to first stimulate epistemic trust and openness.

Epistemic Trust as the Key to Effective Psychotherapies

In proposing that epistemic mistrust might underpin the p factor that underlies long-term impairment, we thus also consider that (the relearning of) epistemic trust may be at the heart of all effective psychotherapeutic interventions. Put simply, we suggest that effective interventions specialize in generating epistemic trust in individuals who struggle to relax their epistemic vigilance in more ordinary social situations. Patients with BPD, for example, are typically experienced as “rigid” and “hard to reach”, and the difficulties involved in stimulating epistemic trust have historically blighted attempts to intervene effectively with these individuals.

“Psychotherapy” in its many forms thus may simply be a specialized variant of an activity that has been part the repertoire of communicative behavior for a very long time – turning to others in times of need to make sense of what is happening to us. It is the seeking out of perspective and the reassurance of another’s social knowledge. But for it to be meaningful there needs to be a workable level of epistemic trust.

The Psychotherapeutic Communication Systems

Based on the above considerations, we propose that there are three distinct processes of communication that cumulatively make psychotherapy effective:

Communication System 1: The teaching and learning of content

The different therapeutic schools belong to this system. They may be effective primarily because they involve the therapist conveying to the patient a model for understanding the mind that the patient can understand as involving a convincing recognition and identification of his/her own state. This may in itself lower the patient’s epistemic vigilance.

Communication System 2: The re-emergence of robust mentalizing

When the patient is once again open to social communication in contexts that had previously been blighted by epistemic hypervigilance, he/she shows increased interest in the therapist’s mind and the therapist’s use of thoughts and feelings, which stimulates and strengthens the patient’s capacity for mentalizing. Improvements in mentalizing or social cognition may thus be a common factor across different interventions.

Communication System 3: The re-emergence of social learning

The relaxation of the patient’s hypervigilance via the first two systems of communication enables the patient to become open to social learning. This allows the patient to apply his/her new mentalizing and communicative capabilities to wider social learning, outside the consulting room. This final part of the process depends upon the patient having a sufficiently benign social environment to allow him/her to gain the necessary experiences to validate and bolster improved his/her mentalizing, and to continue to facilitate relaxation of epistemic mistrust, in the wider social world.


What this view suggests is that the effectiveness of psychotherapies, regardless of their “brand names”, should be investigated at the three levels of communication. Furthermore, it redirects our attention to the social environment, and to interventions that may directly target environmental factors that could contribute to the origin and maintenance of psychopathology, but could also have the potential to support recovery and the individual’s capacity to benefit from benign aspects of the environment.

Peter Fonagy, PhD, FMedSci, FBA, FAcSS, OBE, is Professor of Contemporary Psychoanalysis and Developmental Science and Head of the Division of Psychology and Language Sciences at UCL; Chief Executive of the Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families, London; Consultant to the Child and Family Program at the Menninger Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston; and holds visiting professorships at Yale and Harvard Medical Schools. His clinical and research interests centre on issues of early attachment relationships, social cognition, borderline personality disorder and violence. A major focus of his contribution has been an innovative research-based psychodynamic therapeutic approach, mentalizationbased treatment, which was developed in collaboration with a number of clinical sites in the UK and USA. He has published over 550 scientific papers and 250 chapters, and has authored or coauthored 19 books.

Cite This Article

Fonagy, P., Luyten, P., Campbell, C., & Allison, L. (2014, December). Epistemic trust, psychopathology and the great psychotherapy debate. [Web Article]. Retrieved from http://www.societyforpsychotherapy.org/epistemic-trust-psychopathology-and-the-great-psychotherapy-debate


Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss, Vol. 2: Separation: Anxiety and anger. London, UK: Hogarth Press and Institute of Psycho-Analysis.

Caspi, A., Houts, R. M., Belsky, D. W., Goldman-Mellor, S. J., Harrington, H., Israel, S., . . . Moffitt, T. E. (2013). The p factor: One general psychopathology factor in the structure of psychiatric disorders? Clinical Psychological Science, 2, 119-137. doi: 10.1177/2167702613497473

Csibra, G., & Gergely, G. (2009). Natural pedagogy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13, 148-153. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2009.01.005

Ellis, B. J., Boyce, W. T., Belsky, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2011). Differential susceptibility to the environment: An evolutionary–neurodevelopmental theory. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 7-28. doi: 10.1017/S0954579410000611

Fearon, P., Shmueli-Goetz, Y., Viding, E., Fonagy, P., & Plomin, R. (2014). Genetic and environmental influences on adolescent attachment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 1033-1041. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12171

Fonagy, P., & Allison, E. (2014). The role of mentalizing and epistemic trust in the therapeutic relationship. Psychotherapy, 51, 372-380. doi: 10.1037/a0036505

Fonagy, P., Gergely, G., Jurist, E., & Target, M. (2002). Affect regulation, mentalization, and the development of the self. New York, NY: Other Press.

Fonagy, P., Lorenzini, N., Campbell, C., & Luyten, P. (2014). Why are we interested in attachments? In P. Holmes & S. Farnfield (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of attachment: Theory (pp. 31-48). Hove, UK: Routledge.

Fonagy, P., & Luyten, P. (in press). A multilevel perspective on the development of borderline personality disorder. In D. Cicchetti (Ed.), Development and psychopathology (3rd ed.). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Fonagy, P., Luyten, P., & Allison, E. (2014). Epistemic petrification and the restoration of epistemic trust: A new conceptualization of borderline personality disorder and its psychosocial treatment. Manuscript submitted for publication.

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    • Peter Fonagy

      Thank you very much Christine. That little sentence made my day! Felt a little gloomy up to that point.
      Warm wishes


      • Mauricio Cortina

        Agree that trust is essential, but why call it “epistemic” (that has a strong cognitive connotation) when its roots are deeply emotional ?. Do I have confidence that my attachment figures will respond to my distress? Do I have confidence that they will follow my lead and play cooperatively with me? These confidence expectations are the basis of being able to expose vulnerabilities later in life and seek help when needed, Emotional trust can indeed generalize and become epistemic in nature, and in extremes a times paranoid attitude to the world. Erik Erickson called these positive expectations basic trust, that he considered basic trust as an early pillar of development. I think Erikson term is much better, and does lend itself to a cognitive bias in our theorizing.

    • Adam Burley

      Thanks Peter, I wonder what you think a ‘trust repair service’ might look like in terms of time and provision in the NHS for example? Particularly for those who may never have learned it through critical developmental periods. People for whom the task may be DIScovery rather than REcovery..

  1. Daniel Biddle

    Found this helpful in thinking about a client I’m working with – cheers!

    • Peter Fonagy

      Dear Mauricio
      Why does epistemic make it cognitive. Knowledge is as much (more) emotional than cognitive. It is about the transfer of knowledge from one person to another. It is about internalizing new
      information and modifying one’s representations in the light if new information.

      Dear Daniel
      Thank you
      Warm regards

  2. Marianne Adams

    I very much enjoyed this article- I had never warmed to the phrase ‘mentalizing’ and so wasn’t drawn to explore it, but I was intruiged by the idea of epistemic trust – how apt! I was at a Stephen Porges conference recently and am struck once again by the fundamental ingredients of trust and safety in the therapeutic setting, and in relationships generally. Thank you!

  3. Peter Fonagy

    Dear Marianne
    I am ;-( you do not like mentalizing but 🙂 you like epistemic trust. The two hang together though. understanding someone’s intentions does buy trust. On a good day!
    Warm regards

  4. Tina Hahn


  5. Gillian Bebber

    Dear Authors -Thank you! This is a very useful concept. It led me to the following thoughts which I would like to share and which relate training in to my home culture , psychoanalytic psychotherapy.
    I am making some assumptions ( which could do with being tested out ):
    1) many people drawn to the profession of psychotherapy are very familiar with psychic pain
    2) They have often themselves received too little of the right kind of nurturing and if you have not received it you probably can’t give it. 3) Training therapies, until recently at least, focused on conflict based pathology and valued interpretation over supportive interventions. 4) With this model therapists won’t have been helped to gain greater E/T through their training and so can hardly provide it for their clients. 5) As training therapists themselves they won’t be able to step over their own shadow to help the next generation.
    The conclusion seems to me to be that there is a self perpetuating deficit – possibly in most trainings and the only way out would be to screen people at the outset to ensure that they came armed in this respect by a fortunate upbringing.
    Thank you for providing the opportunity to discuss this.

  6. Patrik Karlsson-Söderström

    I like the multidimensional perspective where early, implicit and relational aspects blends with the here and now aspects, but with a wider explicit scope of focus than ”brand names-therapies” often practices. Another positive aspect i think is the less categorizing stance and mindset of the client and her symptoms. It normalizes suffering as an adaption and is more common sensical for both patients and therapists. I have seen the construct of epistemic trust very valuable in other contexts which often operating with a cognitive modus, such as the school system. It paves the way for other, more therapeutic insights in these systems. For me, it also legitimates sharing spot on advices sometimes, which often is a no go zone in many therapy traditions.
    Keep up the good work!

  7. David Gard

    Thanks for the wonderful article. I really like this idea of epistemic trust as it relates to a “general psychopathology factor”. Do you happen to know if there are any good measures (self-report, observational or otherwise) of epistemic trust?

  8. Peter Fonagy

    Dear David
    Patrick Luyten, Chloe Campbell and the rest of the team are trying to validate one as we speak. But i do not wish to speak to soon. There might be a valid measure soon.
    Warm regards

  9. Fiona Kidd

    Great article. This rings so true for me, I have worked in community mental health, am an educator and have worked in Peer Support and advocacy. People with a lived experience of mental ill-health and recovery who work in support services have long talked about trust and safety as being integral in their recovery. We just didn’t have a specific name or clinical concept for it. But I recognised the concept of ET instantly and intimately as a core aspect of troubled and troubling thoughts and behaviours. I was also struck with parallels between this and the PTMF https://www.bps.org.uk/power-threat-meaning-framework Thank you Peter for your work, in particular for your warmth, empathy and capacity to bring understanding and relief to a deeply maligned group of consumers – ppl with a diagnosis of BPD. Never underestimate the impact on the lives you have transformed and saved with the work you have done.

  10. Barry Farber

    Peter, hi, great summary of important work, though I’d note too that much of what you suggest is quite consistent with Rogers’ notion of the rationale for, and consequences of a therapist’s provision of positive regard. Best regards, Barry


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